All of the protocols in the TCP/IP suite are defined by documents called Requests For Comments (RFC's). An important difference between TCP/IP RFC's and other (say, IEEE or ITU) networking standards is that RFC's are freely available online.
A link refers to the connectivity between two devices. It includes the type of cables and protocols used in order for one device to be able to communicate with the other.
By using acknowledgement.
There are 4 protocols that are being managed by this layer. These are ICMP, IGMP, IP and ARP.
Gateways provide connectivity between two or more network segments. It is usually a computer that runs the gateway software and provides translation services. This translation is a key in allowing different systems to communicate on the network.
5 layers: Network layer, Internet layer, Transport layer and Application layer.
Yes, lots of them, far too many to list here. Uri Raz maintains a TCP/IP bibliography (the "TCP/IP Resources List") that is posted to the comp.protocols.tcp-ip newsgroup on a monthly basis.
Tracert is a Windows utility program that can used to trace the route taken by data from the router to the destination network. It also shows the number of hops taken during the entire transmission route.
NAT is Network Address Translation. This is a protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a common network to share single connection to the Internet.
This is called Network Address Translation, or NAT. In general it is a difficult thing to do properly because many application embed IP addresses in the application-level data (FTP's "PORT" command is a notable example) so NAT isn't simply a matter of translating addresses in the IP header and recalculating header checksums. Also, if the network number(s) you're using match those assigned to another organisation, your gateway may not be able to communicate with.
This is a mode of data exchange wherein two communicating computers do not use IPSec themselves. Instead, the gateway that is connecting their LANs to the transit network creates a virtual tunnel that uses the IPSec protocol to secure all communication that passes through it.
TCP/IP is a name given to the collection (or suite) of networking protocols that have been used to construct the global Internet. The protocols are also referred to as the DoD (dee-oh-dee) or Arpanet protocol suite because their early development was funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the US Department of Defense (DoD).
A subnet mask is combined with an IP address in order to identify two parts: the extended network address and the host address. Like an IP address, a subnet mask is made up of 32 bits.
One major disadvantage of star topology is that once the central hub or switch get damaged, the entire network becomes unusable.
There are four layers: the Network Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer and Application Layer.
TCP/IP model is an implementation of OSI reference model. It has five layers.
They are: Network layer, Internet layer, Transport layer and Application layer.
The following are the protocols under TCP/IP Application layer:
FTP, TFTP, Telnet and SMTP.
TCP is a connection-oriented and UDP is a connection-less protocol.
NOS, or Network Operating System, is specialized software whose main task is to provide network connectivity to a computer in order for it to be able to communicate with other computers and connected devices.
NWLink (Novell), NetBEUI, AppleTalk (Apple).