Top 39 Sap Workflow Interview Questions You Must Prepare 16.Aug.2022

HR Tables: SWEHR2/3
ABAP Code user Exit: SWE_EVENT_CREATE
Change Document: SWEC
Status management:
Message Control:
Event Linkage: SWE2

Subtype: Key field cannot be created. Methods and attributes can be created.

Delegate: If you want to change the functionality of a method, define a sub type, redefine the method, delegate the parent business object to child object.

Interface: Interface is a combination of Attributes, Methods and Events, to reduce the redundancy in definition.

IFSAP: Common interface for all BOs. It has following methods
Method: Display
Method: Existence Check
Attribute; ObjectType

  1. SWUS : Workflow Toolbox
  2. SWU0 : Simulate Event
  3. SWI2_FREQ: Workitems per task
  4. SWUE: Event simulate
  5. SWELS: Set event log ON
  6. SWEHR2: Event linkage in HR
  7. SWU3: Workflow customizing
  8. SWU_OBUF: Synchronize buffers
  9. SWI5: Look into other user’s SBWP
  10. SWDD : Workflow builder
  11. SWLD : SAP workflow easy access to all workflow related transactions
  12. SW01 : Maintain Business objects (add new attributes, methods, events etc to standard business objects)
  13. SWE2 : Active event linkages, addition options not available by SWDD such as setting check function module .
  14. SWWL_TOPLEVEL  : Delete workflow items from SBWP.  
  15. SWELLS : Start/ stop event trace
  16. SWEL : View event trace report
  17. SWUD : Workflow diagnosis
  18. SWI2_DIAG  : Troubleshoot workflows in error, restart
  19. SWIA : Workflow administrator
  20. SWB_COND : Maintain workflow start condition (has pretty pics but is especially rubbish, everything can be done easier via SWDD
  21. SWNCONFIG : Send emails to user with unread work items
  22. SWEC : Trigger workflow on change doc
  23. SWUY : Workflow wizard for message long text
  24. SBWP : Business workplace
  25. PFTC : Maintain (change, display, copy) WF objects including tasks, workflow templates…
  26. PFAC : Maintain Rules for workflow steps (can include ABAP code)
  27. SM63 : Events
  28. SWI1 : Work item selection
  29. SWI2_DEAD : Workflow items with monitored deadline (items that missed deadline)
  30. SWI2_DURA : Workflow items by processing duration.

  • A modal call
  • Before work item executing
  • After work item execution

  1. Workflow Toolbox: SWUS
  2. Simulate Event: SWU0
  3. Business Object Repository: SW01
  4. Event Trace: SWEL (S)
  5. Workitems per task: SWI2_FREQ
  6. SWUE: Event simulate
  7. SWEL: Event log
  8. SWELS: Set event log ON
  9. SWE2: Linkage between Event and Workflow
  10. SWEHR2: Event linkage in HR
  11. SWU3: Workflow customizing
  12. SWU_OBUF: Synchronize buffers
  13. SWI5: Look into other user’s SBWP

Function Module that creates workflow:

SAP_WAPI_START_WORKFLOW:
SAP_WAPI_CREATE_EVENT
SAP_WAPI_WORKITEM_RECIPIENTS
SAP_WAPI_GET_WORKITEM_DETAIL

Requested Start: When this date is met, only then the work item will start execution, or available for taking action (dialog).

Latest Start: When a date mentioned here is met, it can send an email, or can be modeled to do something action.

Requested End: Same as Latest Start

Latest End: Same as Latest Start

Workflow provides numerous advantages to SAP users and consultants:

  • It allows consultants to create new business processes without modifying the standard SAP code.
  • Workflow ensures that the tasks are executed in the correct sequential order, involving the relevant personnel.
  • SAP Business Workflow may be run through the internet or intranet web applications via the Webflow Engine.
  • Deadline Monitoring functionality is also incorporated within SAP Workflow.
  • The timely execution of activities is guaranteed even when a number of parties (users) are involved.
  • Workflow reduces both time and expense involved in managing business activities.

Tcode SWFVISU
Portal config file for UWL

  • Rule Resolution with responsibility: Helpful when a set of static positions are responsible for action.
  • Rule resolution with Function (FM): Helpful when agents are determined dynamically from business logic.
  • Rule resolution with OM: Usually used in CRM. Have not used
  • Rule resolution with Function, but asynchronously: This is through a class and a method. Initially WI is created in status ready without agent. Later agent is assigned. This is suitable for agent determination having complex logic.
  • Users: Rarely used.
  • Role: Ex: ABAP_DEVELOPER
  • OM objects (Position, Org Unit, work center)
  • Expression: A container element containing the agents.

Containers:

1 Workflow Container:

2  Task Container:

  • SWC_GET_CONTAINER
  • SWC_GET_TABLE
  • SWC_SET_CONTAINER
  • SWC_SET_TABLE

Event Container:

Method Container:

Rule Container: For resolving rules

Business Objects

Key Fields:

Attributes:

Database: Automatically gets populated by system code

Virtual: You determine the content and use SWC_SET_CONTAINER to populate

Methods: Can be created using FM, Transaction, Report, Dialog Module, Other

Synchronous: Finish execution before handling the control back to the task.

Asynchronous: Return the control back immediately. Cannot have export parameters. They depend on events to return results back to the calling program.

Dialog: Something to user

Background: Cannot have messages or exceptions.

Enable event queue. It will ensure that triggered events are received in a phased manner. This needs to be done while providing event linkages.

  1. If it is a dialog task, you can set breakpoint in the method called by the task
  2. If it is a method that you want to debug, use SWO1, and create a instance of the object and debug the methods
  3. If it is a background task, and you are in development client, you can do the following. Create an infinite loop in the method you want to debug. Go to SM50 (processes overview) and select the relevant item, and select debug from option.

  • Waiting
  • Ready
  • Reserved
  • Inprocess
  • Executed (‘confirm end of processing’ in task definition)
  • Completed
  • Logically deleted
  • Error

You may consider using deadline monitoring facilities.

For example:  

Requested start, requested end; Latest start or latest end on tasks;

Yes.

  • Execute the Txn SWDD (Creating a new Workflow).
  • In the header of the Workflow, define the Business Object and Event you refer to for triggering the Wf.
  • Create the Steps required for your workflow(Activity).
  • Inside the Activity, Create the task and assign the Business Object and the related method for that business object.
  • Activate the Workflow.

  • FM
  • BAPI
  • Tcode
  • Dialog Module
  • Report
  • Other (BO program)

A work item created as part of synchronous in locked until end of the method execution. But in asynchronous, work item is locked only until start of method execution.

At least one terminating event is required for a task using Asynchronous task.

SWETYPECOU – Type Linkage Table
SWEINSTCOU – Instance Linkage Table

  • Got SWO1 and enter a BO that you want to extend. Click on ‘New Subtype’ Give all the details.
  • Go back to SW01, enter the BO, and goto Settings Delegate.

Example:

BUS7051: Notification,
BUS1001: Material,
BUS2012: Purchase Order,
BUS1065: Employee

Various status of BO

Modeled: Not accessible at runtime
Implemented: Not ready to be used, Internal use only
Released: For customer to use
Obsolete: Don’t use anymore

To change attribute values from methods of a BO

  • SWC_GET_CONTAINER
  • SWC_SET_CONTAINER

No. What you can do is restart the workflow using SWUE. This will be the same as recreating the workflow because it will start at the point where it has logically been deleted.

You can accomplish this by setting up the work item priority to the highest level.

There are three ways a parallel processing can be implemented:

Dynamic parallel processing using a multi-line container element
Fork (3 out of 5)        Work queue
In dynamic processing the type of each entry in the table have to be of same type.
Same task will be processed for each line of the multi-line container. It can be a dialog or background task. Deadline monitoring, binding, agent determination will be same for each work item generated To achieve, go to “Miscellaneous” in the activity, and enter the multi line container element.

we can develop it by giving the code in PBO (process before output) giving table control line = @it will give only 3 lines and we can make 2 lines disable in screen painter options available in table control

Elementary search helps, Collective search help.

Elementary search helps defines a search path where we will define the table from which the data has to be read and the selection criteria. Through import and export parameters. Used when we gets the data rom a single table.

Collective search helps: Combination of elementary search helps. When we need to fetch data based on multiple selection criteria’s. More than one tables are Selection from multiple tables

Difference between Search Helps and Match Codes:

search help: adding f4 functionality is search help(adding help for any topic)

match code: adding search help for the input field is called as math code object.

  • A work item is a runtime object generated by a step within a workflow. Whenever user interaction is required, the respective users are informed via work items. These work items will be received by the user in their Business Workplace inbox, or other email application such as Microsoft Outlook&rights;
  • The work item may be a user decision or a dialog form that allow you to enter data for starting a process within SAP, or a confirmation of whether a particular task may be performed. The user then chooses an appropriate option which determines the subsequent behavior of the workflow in question. There are a variety of applicable work items. Each work item has a status reflecting the stage of processing at any given point in time.
  • A work item comprises of text explaining what action needs to be taken, whom to refer to and any information pertinent to the business object involved.
  • Unlike simple SAP office mails, work items are active entities, as they determine the subsequent direction of the workflow. SAP office mails can also be deleted from the inbox without viewing them whereas a work item has to be executed to have it removed from your inbox.

  1. The table in which the first field is not mandt is the client independent tables
  2. mandt is the field with mandt as the data element
  3. Automatically client which we login is populated to mandt

The Main Transaction Code Involved in Performance Tuning is SE30-Run Time Analysis and ST05-SQL Tracer.

The Default method of the object type is executed if a space is passed as the method parameter value. You can find the default method by viewing the applicable object using transaction SWO1 and going to menu option “Goto -> Basic Data” and clicking on the Defaults tab. The default method is located in the field “Method”.

SWWDHEX     –     For deadline monitoring
SWWERRE      –     For error Monitoring 
SWEQSRV        –     For Event Queue Delivery

A background work item (code B) represents tasks that do not require any user interaction.They are controlled and executed automatically by the workflow system, and do not appear in the Business Workplace. However, you may view them using the Work Item Selection Report.

Tables which can be access by all user are client independent (no mandt field in table)

Tables which can be access by some specific user are client dependent (use mandt field in table)

Yes, if we have customised data to store in table , we create a table.

Dialog Work item – W
Background work item
Workflow work item
Work queue work item

Missed deadline work item: When a deadline is missed a missed deadline workitem with the message appears in inbox.

  • Condition:
  • Multiple Conditions:
  • Until Loop:
  • Fork:
  • Send Mail:
  • Container Operations:
  • Event Creator:
  • Wait Event:
  • Process Control

At the time of creating table through, there is a check box for table maintenance allowed.So if you want to activate the table maintenance, just mark this box. Once table gets activated, u can change its contents through SM30 ot Through Table Maintenance.

If started by an event: 

  • Run SWU_OBUF and check transaction SWU3 for problems .
  • Check that the linkage between the event and the workflow exists in transaction SWE2 and is activated .
  • Check transaction SWEL to see if event was created / gets created (may need transaction SWELS to turn SWEL on) .
  • Test if creating the event manually in SWUE triggers the workflow.  
  • Check if there is a start condition that isn’t being satisfied.
  • Check if the event is in a queue (if event queueing is turned on, see transaction SWEQADM)
  • Check WF-BATCH in transaction SU01, see if all is well (e.g. password not expired)

 If started directly (e.g. with function module SAP_WAPI_START_WORKFLOW; not recommended if it can be avoided):

  • Run SWU_OBUF and check SWU3 for problems
  • Check if workflow has been set to General Task

@Possible Agents:

  • Users who are authorized to execute the task
  • Configured during Task definition (Org Unit, Position, User, Work Center, Role, Rule)
  • If a Task is configured as General Task, then all users become possible users.

@Responsible Agents:

The users to whom the work item needs to be sent.

This is set during Step definition. Note that Possible agents are defined during Task definition. (Org Unit, Position, User, Work Center, Role, Rule, Container Element) 

Note: The work item recipients is determined by intersection of Possible Agents and Responsible Agents. 

@Actual Agents: Actual user who executed the dialog task.

4.Excluded Agents: Users who are not supposed to execute the dialog task (even if they are in possible agents)