Top 50 Sap Testing Interview Questions You Must Prepare 24.May.2024

HP-ALM helps us to manage project milestones, deliverables, resources and keeping track of project health, standards that allow Product owners to gauge the current status of the product. It is important to understand history, architecture, and Quality Center Workflow.

Screen flow logic in SAP Testing is like an ABAP code and it is used to contain the processing blocks. It contains the procedural part of the screen. It is created in screen painter and this screen painter is similar to an ABAP editor.

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) consists of all the steps that are performed in a specific way to ensure that quality goals are met and each step has specific goals and deliverables.

STLC is used to improve the quality of a software product and to make it capable to meet the business requirements to achieve certain goals.

SAP TAO 3.0 contains a Process Flow Analyzer recording wizard which can be used to ease the test recording.

Technical Bill of Material TBOM

SAP TAO enables customers to breakdown a single software into multiple parts which can be integrated to test cases using a simple interface by dragging and dropping each part.

  • TAO supports flexible reuse of test cases and data.
  • If there is any functional change in the system, it is easy to maintain test-cases because of this change.

OPA tests can be performed to check SAP Testing Navigation. OPA is known as Open Source Programming language and it is mostly used for developing web applications. For compilation of OPA program, you can use Node.js on the server and JavaScript on the client side.

SAP TAO is an automation tool to generate test cases for end-to-end scenarios for SAP applications. Apart from this, there are various other Automation testing tools for SAP testing like HP QTP, and ECATT, etc. that can be used.

To create a SAP test-case, you can pass input data (correct and Incorrect and see the outcome):

Correct Input Data

Order Date 01/01/2016, Order Type Sales Order
Expiry Date 15/01/2016, Shipping Date 10/01/2016,
Select Payment Due Date 10/01/2015, Item Qty 10, etc.

Incorrect Input Data

Order Date 01/01/2017, Order Type Sales Order
Expiry Date 15/01/2017, Shipping Date 10/01/2017,
Select Payment Due Date 10/01/2017, Item Qty 0, etc.

Output Data - With Correct Data

Order is successfully saved in SAP module and invoiced.
Next is Packing slip number.
Next is Shipping Order number, etc.

Output Data - With incorrect Data

Error message for incorrect data input. Text message for incorrect input data should be defined in the system.

Expected Output

Sales Order#
Sales Invoice#
Packing List#, etc.

In Load Testing, the tester applies maximum load on a system, either online users or periodic batch processing, and identifies whether the system is capable enough to handle the load. If not, it finds out the steps needed to improve performance.

Example : Suppose the task is to create a sales order and save it. To perform unit testing for this task, the tester should know that the sales order can be saved using the SAP organization elements like customer master data, partner functions, material master data, company code, credit control area, sales organization, etc.

Example : In ABAP development, Unit testing can be performed to check if a report can be created from developer-generated data. It requires assistance from the domain expert.

Example : If you say a cash flow for a quotation in an organization would show that a quote can be used to create a sales order, a delivery can be created and processed from the order, the delivery can be billed, the billing released to accounting, and a customer payment applied against the accounting invoice.

Here is a list of key reasons why SAP testing is performed and why it is an important function in the growth of an organization:

  • System Validation − SAP Testing involves complete end-to-end testing and validation of all SAP modules in SAP ERP environment.
  • Quality and Revenue − SAP Testing is an output-based testing and not like conventional testing methods which are input-based. It ensures the quality of SAP system and also focuses on revenue and cost of the organization.
  • Cost and Predictability − SAP Testing involves reducing the SAP development costs and improve predictability.
  • Compliance Requirement − SAP Testing ensures that the SAP implementation is meeting the new compliance requirements in a specific organization and all the modules are working as per the expected configuration.
  • New Implementation and Configuration Changes − There are different types of changes implemented in a SAP system, like patches and fixes, new implementation, configurational changes. Therefore, SAP testing ensures that all the modules are performing as per requirement in this dynamic system environment.
  • Integration − SAP testing is performed to test various reports, data flows and work flows, GUI forms, etc. It is used to check system integration between different modules. For example, if an order posting is done that requires an action in Sales and Distribution, MM and FICO, then SAP testing checks the integration between these systems.
  • Performance − It is also used to ensure if the system will be able to meet the Service Level agreements, time taken by system to perform specific actions, performance of the system, etc.

SAP test-cases are required to perform a check on the installation and configuration of the SAP system, any new implementation, multi-language and device testing, intranet testing, real-time testing, etc.

Interface testing ensures that a business process on a SAP system runs automatically, the events are triggered, and the results are transferred to the receiver system. Interface testing involves execution on the sending system followed by automatic generation of the interface output, and then the receiving system consuming that file and proving that a business process continues on the receiver.

Ideally, interface testing involves larger testing activities as a project progresses. Interface testing shows that triggering works, the data selection is accurate and complete, data transfer is successful, and the receiver is able to consume the sent data.

The different stages that come under Software Testing Life Cycle are:

  • Requirements phase
  • Test Planning
  • Test Analysis
  • Test Design Phase
  • Test Implementation
  • Test Execution Phase
  • Test Closure Phase.

In this testing, the system is put into stress beyond its specification to check when it fails.

Repository is used to contain information about all the test components and flow in a project. To review information about any test component and to check the process flow, you can click Component Explorer or PFA Explorer.

The different stages that come under Software Testing Life Cycle are as follows:

  • Requirements phase
  • Test Planning
  • Test Analysis
  • Test Design Phase
  • Test Implementation
  • Test Execution Phase
  • Test Closure Phase

The first component is Process Flow Analyzer which is used to automatically find out the user interfaces used in transaction codes executed in the SAP system. It automatically creates the test components and uploads them to Quality Center.

Process Flow Analyzer is also used to identify the sequence of test components as per user actions and creation of spreadsheet values.

Actions help testers to divide scripts into groups of QTP statements called actions. Actions are similar to functions in VBScript, however there are a few differences. By default, QTP creates a test with 1 action.

Manual testing means you are testing a software manually without using any automated tools or any script. In this type of testing, the tester takes over the role of an end-user and tests the software to identify bugs or any unexpected behavior.

There are different stages of a manual testing. They are − unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing.

SAP Testing is about testing the functionality of above SAP modules and to ensure that they perform as per the configuration.

Performance testing checks the following aspects:

  • Whether the system response time is acceptable as per the business requirement
  • Whether periodic processes are running within permissible time,
  • Whether the expected concurrent user load can be supported
  • Performance testing identifies bottlenecks and coding inefficiencies in the SAP system. It is not likely that system performance tuning is perfectly set up and the program is running with optimized code.

Change Analyzer is used to track the changes and impact on the SAP system. When you make any change to a SAP system, it identifies the affected business processes.

To use Change Analyzer, select the specific project and click the change impact analysis option. It will allow you to review and repair the impacted components in the SAP system because of this change.

Suppose you have to create a Sales Order in Sales and Distribution (SD) module. Here, you first need to enter the transaction code(e.g., Transaction Code VA01). Next, check the stock of the item in Inventory module and check the credit limit available on Customer profile in Customer Relationship Module. It shows that all these modules are interdependent; if you customize any of these modules, it will affect the related ERP system.

Technical Bill of Material (TBOM) is used to contain the objects in an executable form. Change Analyzer makes use of this to tell if an executable object is affected when a change is performed.

In case you want to use the Business Process Change Analyzer, you need to generate a TBOM for each executable object in test scenarios and processes.

Note − If you need to run a single test and you have to update TBOM, click Execute and update TBOM.

You can check the details of update on the TBOM page. You can modify the run list that is created in SAP TAO.

UI scanner is used to create new screen components with existing components. It is a plugin for QTP tool. You should try to use inspect tab over UI scanner. The standard UI scanner works only with GUI front-end client. You can also use third-party UI scanner for capturing the screen components.

Check if the Interface is processing all business scenarios accurately as per the test strategy.

To perform Interface testing, the best practice is to start with performing Unit testing.

You have to check if the outbound interface is alright, which means that it ensures to perform file meeting specifications in terms of layout, etc.

You have to check if the inbound interface is okay. Check if it is reading the file correctly and if it is performing the correct steps in the target system.

SAP TAO performs the following tasks in SAP Testing Lifecycle:

  • Test Cases creation.
  • Regeneration of affected components.
  • Test Cases Consolidation.
  • Test Execution.

  • HP Quick Test Professional (QTP)
  • Selenium
  • Load Runner
  • Win Runner

SAP TAO can be easily integrated with various tools to create automated test-cases.

Some common tools which can be integrated with TAO are:

  • SAP Solution Manager (Solman).
  • HP Quality Center QC.
  • HP Quality Test Professional QTP

  • Non-reusable action − An action that can be called only in that specific test in which it has been designed and can be called only once.
  • Reusable action − An action that can be called multiple times any test in which it resides and can also be used by any other tests.
  • External Reusable action − It is a reusable action stored in another test. External actions are read-only in the calling test, but it can be used locally with the editable copy of the Data Table information for the external action.

Test building is done in Quality Center using SAP TAO. You need to consolidate test components to create test scenarios. You can execute a single or multiple tests in SAP TAO using Technical Bill of Material TBOM.

Business Process Testing (BPT) is a part of QTP automation framework and is used with the Quality Center by HP. BPT is used to create automation test scenarios and run those scenarios without any prior knowledge of automation.

HP BPT removes the complexity of test-case creation and maintenance and combines all the documentation and test automation in one effort.

Business Process Testing aligns the testing process with business goals and reduces the testing lifecycle time considerably.

In this testing, multiple systems are combined together to test the output of the integrated system.

To perform SAP testing for the above example, follow the steps given below

The first step is to install HP QTP tool and to install necessary plug-ins within QTP to make it compatible to connect to ERP system.

The next step is to use HP Quality Center (QC) to develop the test plan and then to convert test plan design to Test Scripts. These test plans can be converted to scripts using HP QTP.

Next, record the R/3 GUI screen of SAP system for SD module while creating Sales Order or creating PR in MM.

After you are done with the recording in QTP tool, create a script in VB.

SAPGuiSession("Session").SAPGuiWindow("SAP Easy Access - User").SAPGuiOKCode("OKCode").Set "/nVA01"

SAPGuiSession("Session").SAPGuiWindow("SAP Easy Access - User"). SendKey ENTER

You can also add different parameters and customizations as per your requirement.

You need to display the table name: AGS_TAO_SETTING and change the value for AGS_TAO_ENABLE_SM_SETUP to ON.

The aim of beta testing is to cover unexpected errors. It falls under the class of black-box testing. It is performed by releasing the pre-version of the final product, called Beta.

HP Quality Center, a test management tool, is now popularly known as Application Life Cycle Management (ALM) tool, as it is no longer just a test management tool but it supports various phases of the software development life cycle.

SAP Interface testing is purely dependent on the operations and organizational processes. While performing SAP Interface Testing.

you need to consider the following key points:

  1. What is the purpose of using SAP Interface and what business scenarios are processed by the interface
  2. Check if the Interface is processing all business scenarios accurately as per the test strategy.
  3. To perform Interface testing, the best practice is to start with performing Unit testing.
  4. You have to check if the outbound interface is alright, which means that it ensures to perform file meeting specifications in terms of layout, etc.
  5. You have to check if the inbound interface is okay. Check if it is reading the file correctly and if it is performing the correct steps in the target system.

Consolidate is known as a process to combine SAP TAO components with inbuilt components to create test scenarios as single transactional business components. It allows you to collect multiple test components into one test.

ETL testing is performed to ensure if data is correctly extracted, transformed, and loaded from a source system to a target system.

It is a type of white-box testing that involves testing a single unit or group of units.

Security and Authorizations Testing is used to ensure that users are only able to execute transactions and access appropriate data that is relevant to their project.

As with the implementation of Security standards, this is really important to test if security and authorization is placed in a system. Test IDs for job roles are created and used to both confirm what a user can do and what a user cannot do.

In Business Process Change Analyzer, to execute multiple tests, you can select a folder and add it to the run list. You can also select TBOM creation at the time of execution.

Note − If TBOM already exists at time of execution, it will only update the existing TBOM.

SAP TAO helps customers to fasten the process of creating automated test cases for SAP systems. Automation testing using TAO is performed by creating test components for various transactions in SAP modules.

In Automation testing, the tester writes the scripts and uses software tools to test the product. This process involves the automation of a manual process. Automation testing includes re-running the testcases multiple times that were performed manually.

Automation testing is also used to test the application from load, performance, and stress purpose. It is used to increase the coverage of test. Automation testing improves the accuracy and saves time and money in comparison to manual testing.

SAP Cutover Testing :Cutover testing is usually performed once in a project lifecycle. Here a full-scale execution is done of all the tasks involved to extract data from legacy systems. Then, to perform any kind of data conversion, load the results into the SAP system and fully validate the results, including a user sign-off.