For importing petroleum or petroleum products to U.S, you don’t need a license to import these items, but you need to file a form called EIA 814 with the EIA (Energy Information Administration).
SAP Oil & Gas (TSW - Trader's and Scheduler's Workbench)
Trader's and Scheduler's Workbench (TSW) provides functions for stock projection and for planning and scheduling bulk shipments using nominations. TSW provides the relevant master data to model the supply chain. The stock projection, planning, and nomination processes enable the scheduler to schedule bulk shipments while taking into account supply, demand, and available transportation.
To use the component TSW, you must activate TSW in the current system and client. To do this, in Customizing for Industry Solution Oil & Gas (Downstream) choose TSW (Trader's and Scheduler's Workbench) Specify TSW control parameters and select the TSW active indicator.
To ensure full integration with the SAP Oil & Gas solution, the underlying document flow of a scheduled goods movement is initiated by the TSW user. This involves the automatic creation of shipments using the Transportation and Distribution (TD) component, and the creation of all TD-relevant and subsequent material movement documents.
The Oil Quantity Conversion function provided in the SAP Oil & Gas solution is also integrated with TSW. In order for the Quantity Conversion Interface (QCI) to work properly in TSW, the necessary conversion data must be defined for the material, plant, storage location, and batch.
The following master data objects in the TSW application:
The following planning tools are provided by the TSW application:
The following scheduling tools are provided by the TSW application:
The following sequence is recommended to properly model the supply chain using TSW master data objects:
The following sequence is recommended to properly set up planning data:
The following sequence is an example of a scheduling scenario:
Production allocation functions in SAP UOM take data from various sources and make it visible to production accountants via a simple-to-use work center interface. This interface makes it relatively easy for the production accountants to determine hydrocarbon and water volumes, masses, and energy content. The system is loaded into a user-defined network object via MII and rules applied to allocate oil, gas, water, and condensate. The production accountants can then complete custody transfer to transfer points or a target delivery system. Users can easily determine what was produced; what can be produced; and perform further analysis for longer range planning; plan vs. actual, and apply chemical analysis data to perform allocations at either the component or full product stream level.
Key production allocation-related capabilities include:
Oil and gas offshore installations are industrial towns at sea, carrying the personnel and equipment needed to access reservoirs thousands of feet below the seabed, and maintain continuous hydrocarbon production. The most important functions are drilling, preparing water or gas for injection into the reservoir, processing the oil and gas before sending it ashore, and cleaning the produced water for disposal into the sea.
Big fixed platforms may have all these functions in one location, but smaller platforms may be dedicated to just one function, such as drilling or gas compression. Some installations can be moved from one location to another, for example mobile drilling rigs and production FPSOs.
API means American Petroleum Institute; it is the main association for the oil and natural gas industry in U.S. The API denotes about 400 corporations in the petroleum industry and helps to set the standard for production, refinement and distribution of petroleum product.
In the energy commodities, this fund is the most rounded investment in the energy commodities. This fund is invested in the energy futures contract like heating oil, Brent crude oil, RBOB gasoline and natural gas.
Upstream Operations Management:Gaining an overall picture of a global energy company's upstream operations can be incredibly difficult. This is because each business line will tend to manage complex resources with a focus on its own information and performance goals. Nevertheless, to be able to optimize multiple (often interactive) variables, a company requires a master view.
SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW) is a core element to the UOM solution. SAP now uses a new in-memory computing technology called HANA. According to SAP, this has transformed the current BW IT stack to support reporting and analytics.
In today's fast-paced environment, people expect instant response when searching for information on the Internet. Workers expect the same response from enterprise systems. The amount of enterprise data typically doubles every 18 months and, according to SAP, HANA technology is capable of providing 3,600 times faster analytics to allow deeper data interrogation. This can increase the number of times a user can analyze the data within a given time frame. In-memory computing moves the computing task from the computer disk drive to the local memory so that results of complex analysis and transactions are available at the user's fingertips, either on his or her desktop or smartphone.
Recent improvements in hardware and the economics of memory have opened up new possibilities to create a shift in the computing architecture. In addition to creating hardware structures based on 8 x 8 cores per blade, software has also been redesigned to provide row and column store, compression, and insert only on delta. Microprocessors historically sit idle for long periods and data are not stored the way that business users ask questions. Eighty percent of the business system inquiries use only 20 percent of the data.
SAP currently has over 40 applications that support HANA technology, including SAP BW.
Upstream oil & gas production involves specific requirements and business processes that are unique to this industry. Unlike in the downstream sector, business processes in the upstream oil & gas sector are not well integrated. This is partially due to organizational issues and partially due to the fact that upstream organizations typically use a handful of best-in-breed applications and numerous Excel spreadsheets, rather than a well-integrated solution.
These business processes include work-over management, production planning and allocations, contractor management and maintenance scheduling, production reporting, and others. Without clear visibility into field variables and constraints, operations planners don't have the information they need to make the best decisions. This often results in sub-optimal planning, inefficient use of both physical and human resources, higher costs, and increased risk.
As ARC Advisory Group learned in a recent briefing, SAP has targeted this problem by developing an Upstream Operations Management (UOM) solution that the company has integrated with other SAP products to provide interoperability across systems and processes and visibility into upstream operations, maintenance, engineering, and planning. The ultimate goal, of course, is to help maximize monetization of hydrocarbons.
Upstream oil & gas enterprises can use SAP's integrated analytics solution to address key business questions. Production engineers can determine the performance trend of the target gas and oil wells and better understand factors that impact production. The SAP UOM solution is also integrated with SAP Business Warehouse.
As an example of a typical query, a production engineer can launch a report from the SAP UOM Portal to determine and compare the daily production quantities of well completions across a network along with the relevant medium (hydrocarbons or water) and quantity. This report can also show associated details such as downtime, well tests, measurement data, and lifecycle status for a particular network on a particular production date.
To create the most accurate plans, upstream operators need complete visibility into all activities that impact delivery at the tailgate or custody transfer points. These include physical constraints, planned and unplanned logistic constraints, and planned maintenance and work-over’s. SAP UOM supports three core functions to facilitate workflow: field data capture, production allocation and planning, and operations performance analysis.
Field Data Capture:
Upstream oil & gas operating companies can complete upstream allocations using SAP MII to integrate and validate field data from process historians. Field measurements, well test downtime measurements, and production measurements from highly instrumented fields are captured via industry best practices. Well downtime information from a variety of sources can also be integrated into SAP Plant Maintenance (PM) to improve maintenance planning activities. Since many onshore fields will have limited automation systems, users can leverage the SAP mobility platform to capture data in the field.
There are about 161 different types of Oil found worldwide. The different categories of Oil found worldwide is classified into different types of crude oil like Brent, Dubai Crude, West Texas, Intermediate, etc. Classification is done according to their sulphur content.
There are State taxes and Federal taxes that is levied on your gasoline, though taxes changes from one state to another. You are paying approx. 23% of state taxes per gallon of your gasoline that may vary to 40% depending upon the state. While, federal government excises tax is about 18 percent per gallon.
The factors that can fluctuate the gasoline price are:
These are installations on land and usually close to the sea which receive oil and gas from offshore installations via pipeline (or in the case of oil sometimes by tanker). These installations prepare the liquid products for further refining - but they are not the refineries. They also take the natural gas and make it suitable for piping into the National Grid. At some installations gas liquids are processed.