Common Geographic Information System (GIS) questions and answers for interview preparation 07.Jul.2022

chart junk : Unnecessary detail around maps and diagrams

Commands do not require interaction with the map, they just rely on surface. Tools on the other hand require interaction with the map canvas.

GIS hydrological models can provide a spatial element that other hydrological models lack, with the analysis of variables such as slope, aspect and watershed or catchment area.

Geo-coding is when you associate a place name or an address with map coordinates. Geo-referencing is the process of associating plain digital images taken from a satellite or a plane with map coordinates so that they can be overlaid on street maps.

  • Exchange and Sharing of ideas via- electronic mail (e-mail) and online lists.
  • Online forum (video conferencing).
  • Data trfer (File Trfer Protocol- FTP).
  • Browsing (web sites).

  • Data acquisition (spatial and non-spatial).
  • Data processing (data management).
  • Data analysis (Spatial & statistical analysis).
  • Data storage  (Store  data more efficiently).
  • Data output   (Maps,  graphs, tables, reports).

  • They are easy to use.
  • They incorporate spatially explicit models.
  • They are designed to make full use of available data.

  • People
  • Data
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Methods

GIS or spatial data mining is the application of data mining methods to spatial data. Data mining, which is the partially automated search for hidden patterns in large databases, offers great potential benefits for applied GIS­based decision making. Typical applications including environmental monitoring. A characteristic of such applications is that spatial correlation between data measurements require the use of specialized algorithms for more efficient data analysis.

The District GIS software standards consist of the Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) products and Google Inc. geospatial services and software. The ESRI standard includes the ArcGIS line of desktop and server software product lines. The Google standard includes the Google Earth Enterprise line of server side products and Google Maps for mash­up type applications. Other geospatial software packages and vendors can be accommodated if necessary to meet specific business requirements.

Commands do not require interaction with the map, they just rely on surface.

Virtual Reality Modelling Language

Remote sensing refers to detection and classification of objects on or in earth without physical contact, generally attained through aerial sensors.

Remote sensing refers to detection and classification of objects on or in earth  without physical contact, generally attained through aerial sensors.

Skills in spatial data handling, algorithms, data conversion, model building and database programming.

Land Information System (LIS) is typical to GIS, but related primarily to large scale and parcel-based system such as Automated Mapping and Facilities Management (AM/FM)

I am familiar with Arc Map, Arc catalog and Arc toolbox.

A GIS technician works closely with end users to identify GIS data requirements and handle technical issues. It is also the job of a GIS technician to manage data maintenance and manipulation and handle extraction activities along with ensuring preparation, planning and updating a variety of maps and drawings to be part of a GIS database.

A set of graphs and maps where items are linked in separate displays.

The two data structures that can hold spatial data include raster and vector.

Nature of data, government rules and policies regarding data retention and data privacy factors.

  • 1963:  Computing comes of age (Establishment of the Urban and Regional Information System Association URISA and  the first GIS Conference in Ottowa, Canada in 1963).   
  • 1964: Canada GIS-Roger Tomlinson “Father of GIS”   
  • 1964: Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis   
  •  1970s GIS software evolves rapidly (more GIS companies appeared e.g. Intergraph, ESRI, Governmental departments introduced GIS e.g. The US Bureau of the Census)   
  • 1980s GIS software advances significantly (more budget and human resources allocated for GIS, by the end of 1980s more than 4000 GIS/CAD software are introduced)   
  • Digital data becomes available (TIGER, World Data Bank, DIME)   
  • 1990s (integration of Raster and Vector based systems, Multi-media GIS, software become more user friendly)   
  • 2000:   Web-based GIS

GIS tools on the other hand require interaction with the map canvas.

Spatial ETL tools provide the data processing functionality of traditional Extract, Trform, Load (ETL) software, but with a primary focus on the ability to manage spatial data. They provide GIS users with the ability to trlate data between different standards and proprietary formats, whilst geometrically trforming the data en route.

Competent decisions can only be rendered by reliable data and though GIS is an amazing data management tool, using it with GPS helps in validating the data analysis and results.

GIS is a system of computer software, hardware, data, procedures and personnel combined to help, manipulate, analyze, and present information that is tied to a geographic location.

Modern GIS technologies use digital information, for which various digitized data creation methods are used. The most common method of data creation is digitization, where a hard copy map or survey plan is trferred into a digital medium through the use of a CAD program, and geo­referencing capabilities.

Well, it depends on the project really. Some of the default templates are really good and safe to use. I make the choice based on the project caliber.

Geostatistics is a branch of statistics that deals with field data, spatial data with a continuous index. It provides methods to model spatial correlation, and predict values at arbitrary locations (interpolation).

  • Time minimization                               
  • Accuracy improvement  
  • Data can be managed efficiently
  • High cost/benefit ratio

GIS - Adds the analytical capabilities (graphic+ attribute) while automated cartography and CAD lack (graphic only)