Power Station is a place where Power is Generated and Trmitted , eg. Thermal power station, Hydel power station, Nuclear power station etc.
A bundle conductor consists of two more parallel subconductors at a spacing of several diameters.this is use to reduce the corona and skin effect.
The minimum voltage at which the breakdown of the insulating properties of air occurs and corona start is called D C V .
Faults that occur within the zone are termed as Internal Faults and that occur outside the zone of protection are termed as external faults (can also be called as through faults).
Naturally when a fault occurs it is sensed by both the primary and backup protection. As the operating time of primary relay is less than that of the backup relay, it will operate first. There will be an overshoot time (due to moment of inertia of moving relay system).
Consider a primary relay A having operating time of 0.1 sec. Assume circuit breaker operating time as 0.5 sec and overshoot time as 0.4 sec. Now the operating time of backup relay B will be 0.1+0.5+0.4= 1 sec.
A Definite time over current relay (DTOC) can be adjusted to trip out at a definite amount of time, after it picks up. It has a time adjustment setting and pickup setting.
The operating principle of IDMT relay is based on the idea that more severe a fault is, the faster it should be cleared to avoid damage to apparatus.
Directional relays are used mainly in single end fed system of parallel feeders, ring main feeder system etc.
Slack Bus is the responsible for the delivering losses in the power system. in this bus the magnitude of voltage and phase angle are specified. This bus is first to respond to a changing load condition.
The relay should allow normal load as well as a certain degree of overload to be supplied. So the pickup value of the relay should be more than maximum load. At the same time, the relay should be sensitive enough to respond to the smallest fault. So, pickup value should be less than the smallest fault current.
If the adjacent zones do not overlap there will be some portion of the power system which is left out unprotected.
When the AC passed through the conductor the density of the current is not uniform over the cross-section of the conductor, the density of the current is very high near the surface of the conductor and very low at middle this effect is called skin effect. this effect is only in the ac.
The farthest point from the relay which is still inside the zone of protection is called reach point and the distance between relay and reach point is called reach.
Faults in the 3 P system can be classified under the following :-
Fuses are burned at the time of over current flows in the circuit but breakers are just open (not burn) at the time of over current flow. Fuses are used in only one time but breakers are used by multiple number of times.
Resistance grounding system me connecting the neutral point of the load to the ground to carry the residual current in case of unbalanced conditions through the neutral to the ground whereas resistance earthing system is done in an electric equipment in order to protect he equipment in occurrence of fault in the system.
The protection is organized to provide a ring of security around each and every element of power system. If there is any fault associated within the ring the relays associated with it must trip all the allied circuit breakers so as to remove any faulty element from rest of the power system. This ring of security is called ‘Zone of protection’.