A Choice is displayed in a compact form that requires you to pull it down to see the list of available choices and only one item may be selected from a choice. A List may be displayed in such a way that several list items are visible and it supports the selection of one or more list items.
Controls are components that allow a user to interact with your application and the AWT supports the following types of controls:
Labels, Push Buttons, Check Boxes, Choice Lists, Lists, Scrollbars, Text Components.
These controls are the subclasses of the Component.
An object’s finalize() method cannot be invoked by the garbage collector while the object is still reachable. However, an object’s finalize() method may be invoked by other objects.
Not possible. Doing it will result in compilation error.
Encapsulation is a process of binding or wrapping the data and the codes that operates on the data into a single entity. This keeps the data safe from outside interface and misuse. One way to think about encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by the other code defined outside the wrapper.
Because behind every swing component are many Java objects and resources. This takes time to create them in memory. JDK 1.3 from Sun has some improvements which may lead to faster execution of Swing applications.
Java is an object-programming language that was designed to be portable across multiple platforms and operating systems. Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java is modeled after the C++ programming language and includes special features that make it ideal for programs on the Internet. Still, you may be wondering why Java is suddenly receiving so much hype, and what possible improvements could have been made to this new language so as to push aside a well-established language such as C++.
First and foremost, Java makes it easy to put interactive graphics and other special effects on a World Wide Web page. As with any programming language, Java lets you write programs. Special Java programs, called applets, execute inside a Web page with a capacity matching that of any traditional program. Furthermore, when you run a Java applet, the remote server, Java trmits the applet to your browser across the Internet. So rather than going out to a computer store to buy software, Java applets let you download applications automatically when you need them.
By avoiding too much of static methods avoiding the excessive and unnecessary use of synchronized methods Selection of related classes based on the application (meaning synchronized classes for multiuser and non-synchronized classes for single user) Usage of appropriate design patterns Using cache methodologies for remote invocations Avoiding creation of variables within a loop and lot more.
Class is a template for multiple objects with similar features and it is a blue print for objects. It defines a type of object according to the data the object can hold and the operations the object can perform. Constructor is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when created. Primitive data types are 8 types and they are: byte, short, int, long, float, double, boolean, char.
Java strings are immutable, which me after you create a String object, you cannot change that object's contents. The Java designers found that most of the time, programmers do not need to change a string after it is created. By making String objects immutable, Java can provide better error protection and more efficient handling of strings. However, in case you do need to change the String, you can use a class called StringBuffer as a temporary "scratchpad" which you use to make changes. In short, your programs can change the String objects you store within a Stringbuffer and later copy the buffer's contents back to the String object after your alterations are complete.
In short, you should use String objects for "frozen" character strings whose contents you don't expect to change. In contrast, you should use the StringBuffer class for strings you expect to change in content or size. Within your programs, you can take advantage of features from both classes because both provide methods to easily convert between the two.
When you declare a variable in a class trient, you tell Java that the variable is not a part of the object's persistent state. Currently, Java does not use the trient keyword. However, future (persistent) versions of Java may use the trient keyword to tell the compiler that the program is using the variable for "scratch pad" purposes and that the compiler does not need to save the variable to disk. The following statement illustrates the use of the trient keyword:
trient float temp__swap__value;
A local inner class may be final or abstract.
A class is a definition or prototype whereas an object is an instance or living representation of the prototype.
Global variables are considered bad form for a variety of reasons: Adding state variables breaks referential trparency (you no longer can understand a statement or expression on its own: you need to understand it in the context of the settings of the global variables), State variables lessen the cohesion of a program: you need to know more to understand how something works. A major point of Object-Oriented programming is to break up global state into more easily understood collections of local state, When you add one variable, you limit the use of your program to one instance. What you thought was global, someone else might think of as local: they may want to run two copies of your program at once. For these reasons, Java decided to ban global variables.
A while statement checks at the beginning of a loop to see whether the next loop iteration should occur. A do statement checks at the end of a loop to see whether the next iteration of a loop should occur. The do statement will always execute the body of a loop at least once.
It must provide all of the methods in the interface and identify the interface in its implements clause.
A package statement must appear as the first line in a source code file (excluding blank lines and comments).
Overridden methods must have the same name, argument list, and return type. The overriding method may not limit the access of the method it overrides. The overriding method may not throw any exceptions that may not be thrown by the overridden method.
It is a daemon thread.
If statement is used to select from two alternatives. It uses a boolean expression to decide which alternative should be executed. The expression in if must be a boolean value. The switch statement is used to select from multiple alternatives. The case values must be promoted to an to int value.
The process of converting one datatype to another in Java language is called Casting.
As you have learned, the javac compiler examines your source-code files and produces the bytecode .class files. As your Java applets become more complex, it may become difficult for you to locate errors (bugs) within your code. To help you locate such errors, most Java development environments provide a special debugger program. In the case of the Sun's Java Developer's Kit, the debugger program is named jdb (for Java debugger). To provide jdb with more information to work with, the Sun's JDK provides special version of the compiler named javac__g. Sun designed the javac _g compiler for use with debuggers. Essentially, javacjg is a non-optimized version of the javac compiler which place tables of information within the bytecode that the debugger can use to track down errors. To compile a Java applet using the javac__g compiler, you simply specify the applet source-file named within the javac^g command line, as shown here:
C:JAVACODE> javac „ g SomeFile.Java <Enter>
this() is used to invoke a constructor of the same class. super() is used to invoke a superclass constructor.
Java lets you extend one class (the superclass) with another (the subclass). When a subclass extends a class, the subclass can override the superclass methods. In some cases depending on a method's , purpose, you may want to prevent a subclass from overriding a specific method. When you declare a class method as final, another class cannot override the methods. Methods which you declare static or private are implicitly final. To declare a method as final, simply precede the method header with the final keyword, as shown:
public final CannotOverrideThisMethod();
Platform independence me that we can write and compile the java code in one platform (eg Windows) and can execute the class in any other supported platform eg (Linux,Solaris,etc).
Holding the reference of the other class within some other class is known as composition.
Static resources should always be included using the JSP include directive. This way, the inclusion is performed just once during the trlation phase. Do note that you should always supply a relative URL for the file attribute. Although you can also include static resources using the action, this is not advisable as the inclusion is then performed for each and every request.
JVM is Java Virtual Machine which is a run time environment for the compiled java class files.
Panel and Applet classes use the FlowLayout as their default layout.
An object reference be cast to an interface reference when the object implements the referenced interface.
Assignment can be done as many times as desired whereas initialization can be done only once.
If a object value is changeable then we can call it as Mutable object. (Ex., StringBuffer, …) If you are not allowed to change the value of an object, it is immutable object. (Ex., String, Integer, Float, …)
When people talk about code being robust, they are referring to the code's reliability. Although Java has not eliminated unreliable code, it has made writing high-quality software easier. To begin, Java eliminates many of the memory problems that are common in languages such as C and C++. Java does not support direct access to pointers to memory. As a result, a Java applet cannot corrupt your computer's memory. Also, Java performs run-time checks (while the applet is running) to make sure that all array and string references are within each items's bounds. In other programming languages, many software bugs result from the program not freeing memory that ought to be freed or freeing the same memory more than once. Java, on the other hand, performs automatic garbage collection (which releases unused memory), eliminating the program's need to free unused memory.
Next, Java is more strongly typed than C++ and requires method declarations, which reduces the potential for type-mismatch errors. Finally, Java institutes an error trapping method known as exception handling. When a program error occurs Java signals the program with an exception, which provides the program with a chance to recover from the error- and warns the user that something caused a specific operation to fail.
There are two types of exceptions in java. Checked exceptions and Unchecked exceptions. Any exception that is is derived from Throwable and Exception is called checked exception except RuntimeException and its sub classes. The compiler will check whether the exception is caught or not at compile time. We need to catch the checked exception or declare in the throws clause. Any exception that is derived from Error and Runtime Exception is called unchecked exception. We don't need to explicitly catch a unchecked exception.
The variable should be declared as static and final. So only one copy of the variable exists for all instances of the class and the value can't be changed also. static final int PI = 2.14; is an example for constant.
Print the statement inside a static block of code. Static blocks get executed when the class gets loaded into the memory and even before the creation of an object. Hence it will be executed before the main method. And it will be executed only once.
A method declared as final can't be overridden. A sub-class can't have the same method signature with a different implementation.
To control a class member variable's scope, you can precede the variable's declaration with the public, private ox protected keywords. A protected variable is one that is only visible within its class, within subclasses or within the package that the class is part of. The different between a private class member and a protected class member is that & private class member is not accessible within a subclass. To declare a variable protected, simply use the protected keyword at the start of the variable declaration, as shown:
protected int ImProtected;
Yes an Interface can inherit another Interface, for that matter an Interface can extend more than one Interface.
The variables play a very important role in computer programming. Variables enable programmers to write flexible programs. It is a memory location that has been named so that it can be easily be referred to in the program. The variable is used to hold the data and it can be changed during the course of the execution of the program.
A non-static inner class may have object instances that are associated with instances of the class's outer class. A static inner class does not have any object instances.
From a practical programming viewpoint, polymorphism exists in three distinct forms in Java:
notify wakes up a single thread that is waiting for object's monitor. If any threads are waiting on this object, one of them is chosen to be awakened. The choice is arbitrary and occurs at the discretion of the implementation. notifyAll Wakes up all threads that are waiting on this object's monitor. A thread waits on an object's monitor by calling one of the wait methods.
Constructor will be automatically invoked when an object is created whereas method has to be called explicitly.
An I/O filter is an object that reads from one stream and writes to another, usually altering the data in some way as it is passed from one stream to another.
No. A class is not a subclass of itself.
When you compare the performance of a Java program against that of a C/C++ program, you will find that the current generation of Java programs can be as much as twenty times slower than their C/C++ counterparts. This performance loss is mostly due to the fact that the browser musf interpret the Java bytecode and convert it into the computer's native code (such as a Pentium or Motorola-specific code) before the code can run. In C/C++, the code is in the processor's native format to begin with, so this time-consuming trlation step is not required. Remember, however, that Java's generic bytecode allows the same Java code to run on multiple platforms.
The Java designers are working on various solutions to speed up Java. In the meantime, you can use the -O compiler switch with javac, which may increase the applet's performance. The -0 switch directs javac to optimize its bytecode by "inlining" static, final and private methods. For now, don't worry what "inlining" such code me other than it may improve your applet performance. Unfortunately, when you use inlining, you may increase the size of your bytecode file, which will increase the applet's download time. The following Javac command illustrates how you use the -0 switch:
C:JAVACODE> javac -O MyFirst.java <Enter>
The non-Unicode letter characters $ and _ may appear as the first character of an identifier.