Multiple unequal paths, autonomous system number, etc.
It trports both voice and data, and same as X.25
We can use the Modem, CSU/DSU and TA/NT1 for this.
The “trace [protocol] [destination]” is used to discover routes that packets will travel to their destination hosts. TTL (Time to Live) is used to report destination route information.
It helps avoid frame looping.
It contains the Flag, Address, Control, Proprietary, Data, FCS and Flag.
The range is 100-199
It monitors data dropped on a link.
One Access list per port, per protocol is allowed.
It can be done by boot system commands and config register.
Username and password is sent in clear text and The authentication controls remote node.
The cisco routers checks whether the packet is routable or bridgeable
The Data link layer serves this purpose.
It is the condition when the router lacks any more buffer space.
Novell-Ether is the default IPX Ethernet encapsulation.
It is used to identify the PVC in frame relay network.
It can be configured by TFTP, Nvram or Console
Authentication messages and local router challenges
It is used to carry messages like destination unreachable, source quench, parameter problem, time exceeded, timestamp, address reply and address request.
Source Port - 16 bits, Destination Port - 16 bits, Length - 16 Bits, Checksum - 16 bits, Data
These are link establishment phase, authentication phase and the network layer protocol phase.
It is the layer 4 trport protocol and has no handshaking.
The full form of RARP is Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. It is used to start remote O/S load sequence.
The range is 800-899
To save the bandwidth by reducing overhead and to connect to a non cisco router.
The default values are bandwidth and delay.
It is used to determine the MAC Address of a workstation.
Stac and Predictor
The access list range is 100 - 199.
dotted decimal, hexadecimal and bit count formats can be used.
Determines the path, multiplexing and management of sessions.
It is used for dial on demand routing. DDR provides routing for low volume and periodic traffic.
It is a kind of flow control.
HDLC is the default serial encapsulation.
These are Switched services, Using protocols connecting peer to peer devices and Interface front end to IBM Enterprise Data center computers.
It stands for Service Advertising Protocol and it is used to advertise services.
It is a composite metric. There are updates every 60 seconds and it is a poison reverse.
The router checks the corresponding bit value.
NVRAM is used for this.
It is stored in the NVRAM.
switch, repeater and bridge.
There are three different kinds of access lists. These are standard, extended and named.
Cut through is the switching method used to examine it.