IPv4 is a 32 bits address and IPv6 is 128 bits address.
Erase startup-config is the command to delete preconfigured files on the router.
MTU stands for “Maximum Trmission Unit.” When you configure a router, a default MTU is set. MTU determines the maximum size of a packet that is sent across the network. You can increase MTUs across the network, but this setting generally slows down the network compared to smaller MTU settings. Some network applications require larger MTU sizes, and that’s when you need to manually configure MTU sizes on your routers.
These two modes are somewhat self-explanatory. The user mode allows the user to view router status and basic system information. With privileged mode access status, the router can be configured and all status messages and errors can be viewed. User mode and privileged mode separates standard users on the network and network administrators who need to not only view router status but also make changes to the router’s configurations.
CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. It is a media access control method used in local area networking using early Ethernet technology to overcome the occurred collision.
CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. It is used in wireless network to avoid collision.
VLAN stands for Virtual Local Area Network.
Although both are the communication devices and both are used to trmit and receive data but full-duplex facilitate you to trmit and receive data at the same time while half-duplex cannot receive while it is trmitting data.
RTT is the propagation time between two nodes. It is the time taken to send a packet out of the interface and receiving the acknowledgement.
A group of devices under a single administration is called an AS.
When you send traffic on a network, the router (default gateway in Windows computer terminology) determines how to route the traffic. RIP determines where to send the traffic by determining the shortest amount of “hops.” A hop is the next router in the traffic’s path. Each router is considered a hop. With IGRP, several more factors are considered. IGRP takes into consideration the bandwidth availability, MTU, reliability and the amount of hops.
Straight cable: Straight cable is used to connect different group devices. For example: Switch- Router.
Cross cable: Cross cable is used to connect same group devices. For example: Switch-Switch.
Rollover cable: Rollover cable is used to connect console port to computer.
For an effective network, there must be alternate paths available, convergence should be fast and whatever happens network should never go down. Network should be cost effective and properly secure.
The process of routing is done by the devices known as Routers. Routers are the network layer devices.
The Application Layer supports the communication components of an application and provides network services to application processes that span beyond the OSI reference model specifications. It also synchronizes applications on the server and client.
The show protocols command shows the global and interface-specific status of any configured Level 3 protocol.
DHCP Scope is the range of IP Addresses from which DHCP server will be assigning IP Addresses to the clients.
Network latency refers to the performance of one device when it communicates with another. Network latency is affected by bandwidth speeds, network card performance, cabling and congestion. High latency can also mean users won’t be able to properly communication with applications, which will “time out” if latency is too high.
100BASE-FX is a version of Fast Ethernet over optical fiber.
The job of the Data Link layer is to check messages are sent to the right device. Another function of this layer is framing.
It should include subnet mask of each destination address.
There are five types of passwords can be set on a Cisco router:
These are the three possible ways of data trmission:
Subnets are used in IP network to break up larger network into smaller network. It is used to optimize the performance of network because it reduces traffic by breaking the larger network into smaller networks. It is also used to identify and isolate network's problem and simplify them.
Network congestion occurs when too many users are trying to use the same bandwidth. This is especially true in big networks that do not resort to network segmentation.
POE allows electrical current to be carried by the cable rather than the power cords. It minimizes the number of wires required to install the network.
Broadcast domain is a domain where if a broadcast frame is forwarded, every device pays attention and receives the data. While in Collision domain, chances of data collision is maximum. Like in Hub, if two or more send traffic at the same time, data will collide in between and none of the devices will receive the data.
Data packets are the encapsulation units that trmit information across a network. A data packet contains the sender’s information, the recipient’s information, and the data contained. It also contains the numeric identification number that defines the order and packet number. When you send data across the network, that information is segmented into data packets. The recipient then puts these packets together to be able to read the information. Basically, data packets contain the information and routing configurations for your trferred message.
A connection between two nodes of the network is referred as point to point network and that link which connects both nodes is point to point link.
A checksum is a count of the number of bits in a trmission data that is included with the data so that the receiver can check to see whether the same number of bits arrived. If the counts match, it’s assumed that the complete trmission was received.
Gateway-to-Gateway protocol is now obsolete. This was being used for routing datagrams between internet gateways. It uses Minimum hop Algorithm.
The maximum limit is 15 hop counts. Anything higher than 15 indicates that the network is considered unreachable.
These are the two major types of networks:
ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. ARP is a protocol that is used to map an IP address to a physical machine address.
RAPR stands for Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. RARP is a protocol that is used to map a MAC address to IP address.
In full duplex, communication occurs from both side, while in half duplex communication occurs in one direction.
Node is a connection point on network for data trmission. It can be a computer or printer or any type of device that is capable of sending and receiving the data over the network.