Top 50 Basic Programming Interview Questions You Must Prepare 14.Jun.2024

CDROM access is sequential.
Magnetic sequential access memory is typically used for secondary storage in general-purpose computers due to their higher density at lower cost compared to RAM, as well as resistance to wear and non-volatility. Examples of SAM devices still in use include hard disks, CD-ROMs and magnetic tapes. Historically, drum memory has also been used.

you can write a simple ASP program to run against the root directory of the website.

If a Record occurs more than one time in a table by the difference of a non-key attribute then such a dimension is called Dirty Dimemsion.

If you want to put background color you can use background-color property of CSS in body tag.

If you want to put background image you can use background-image property of CSS in body tag.

The major difference between the response time between a client & server is of - response time.

Usually client response time is lesser in comparison to the server response time.

In laym term walk-through is nothing but running thru the requirements while review is making an analysis of the progress and if the case may be a change has to be recommended

Constructor does not support virtual functions because we need an object to invoke a virtual method in the first place and more over constructors are used to initializing objects,which is a static type.Virtual functions are invoked on the dynamic type of the object,hence the object may not be properly initialized when a constructor call is made.Since the derived part of the object would not be initialized during the execution of base class constructor,hence calling any virtual method from base class constructor does not work well.

ports are like different gates of the building. Each gate is having its own function.

  • HTTP Port : it will allow only HTTP people. It communicates in HTTP protocol. any request with http:// .. HTTP.. is Hyper Text Trfer Protocol.
  • FTP Port : File Trfer Protocol.... used to upload and download files..... used to update websites from the local machine... it requires FTP host name, username and password.. and on the host machine FTP services should be enabled.
  • Telnet port: telenetting with other computer in hybrid environment... from thin client to server..

CRM application cluster is a software that ranges in size and complexity making it possible for an organization to select the type of software needed the most. It consists of how a customer is related to sales,marketing and fulfillment,customer service and support,retention and loyalty program and contact and account management.

In GUI mode i.e winCVS, On menubar,there is checkout option.In that u can click and select the module that you want to check out.

In UNIX mode,you have to execute the following comand, >CVS checkout -r

I agree it is correct to say that Java is platform independent, but it is due to the Java Virtual Machine. Java programs are only intermediately compiled, which allows adaptation to the given environment it needs to run in later.

An example of a portability issue is the creation of Unix. The first version was not portable. It was specific only to that computer's architecture. Unix became portable when it was rewritten in C. The new version written in C was portable because C served as a "trlator", if you will, between what underlying architecture or devices were physically in the computer and what unix wanted them to do.

Multithreading is the ability of a program or an operating system process to manage its use by more than one user at a time and to even manage multiple requests by the same user without having to have multiple copies of the programming running in the computer. Central processing units have hardware support to efficiently execute multiple threads. These are distinguished from multiprocessing systems (such as multi-core systems) in that the threads have to share the resources of a single core: the computing units, the CPU caches and the trlation lookaside buffer (TLB).

Pageing is a memory Management technique which allows users program memory to be non continus, the technique is used to remove the problem of external fragmentation.In this technique entire user Memory is divided into fixed size page frames, a Page Map table is used to map the user process pages to physical memory page.

In-accurate data is often termed as dirty data and has been characterized as missing data, wrong data and compound data with different representations.

Ex. :- customer dimension in which the same person can appear multiple times probably not with exactly the same spellings or other attributes.

char *str=new str;char *str1=new str1;strcpy(str,str1);delete str;at this time str will act as dangling pointer because when str1 is copied to str ,then it will create the deep copy,so when when we will delete that one then still thare is existing of its instance.That is called dangling pointer.

A ROM image captures the data from a read-only memory chip, such as hardware firmware, video and arcade game boards, etc. It is often used for emulation.

Not necessary that you have to take any course provided if you are not fresher. Suppose if you are working in any company as design engineer, then as you have the domain knowledge working as end user. Then you can definitely use this knowledge to test the software and find bugs. And regarding processes and tools used every company has different strategy which can be managed or learn once you get into that company.

OSI is Open System Interface Model. It is a concept which is used to make data trfer in steps. There are 7 layers and each layer interact with its counterpart. earlier a product made by any abc co was able to communicate with the same company product. to communicate with different co's products it was created. as it's name shows "OPEN System Interface".

ODBC is an open standard for software providers to follow when creating an intermidate layer between the database and the application using the database. Having "open standards" usually me that different applications can write their code the same way no matter which database they are using, as long as that database comes with an ODBC driver.In contrast, native drivers are built with one specific database in mind. Thus, applications written to use the native driver will only work with one particular database. You will lose flexibility in your code's ability to switch database vendors, but you might gain performance enhancements due to the fact that the driver is custom made for the database and may be able to take advantage of an "insider's view" of the database software.

Raster data is a set of horizontal lines composed of individual pixels, used to form an image on a CRT or other screen.Raster data makes use of matrix of square areas to define where features are located. These squares are typically of uniform size, and their size determines the detail that can be maintained in the dataset.Raster data represent square areas, they describe interiors rather than boundaries. Vector data use X and Y coordinates to define the locations of points, lines, and areas (polygons) that correspond to map features, vector data tend to define centers and edges of features.They are excellent for capturing and storing spatial details

Data Modelling is designing of the data content and structure of the database.
The data model documents the structure of and interrelationships between the data - it is presented as a combination of simple diagrams and written definitions and is independent of any DBMS software or hardware considerations.

Generally, lightning is negatively charged. During thunderstorms. The Earths is recharged and its surface becomes good conductor of electricity. The Earth is charged negatively and the atmosphere is charged positively. Electrons flow upwards from the entire surface of the Earth. Thunderstorms help trfer the negative charges back to Earth.

virtual functions are the functions by which we can implement the concept of polymorphism ,ie one name with several distinct forms.a f'n preceded by a virtual keyword makes a function virtual me the compiler turns on the mechanism to perform late binding or dynamic binding.more of all,the same function name can be used to perform different tasks .

In horizontally clustered environment, cluster-enabled application is deployed on multiple physical machines. Each machine is available for requests. Horizontal clusters offers protection over hardware failure, increases efficiency, provides load balancing and process failover.

However, since there are many number of physical machines involved the installation and maintenance cost increases proportionally.

In Vertical clustering, multiple application server instances are hosted on the same physical machine. This type of clustering provides increased efficiency, load balancing and process failover. However, if hardware fails then there may not be ready alternative.

scanf("%s",str); why is it not scanf("%s",&str);

We don't give an & before reading a string. This is so because a string is a character array. For an array, be it integer or character or any other array, declared as int a[10] or char str[20], the name 'a' or 'str' stores the base address of the array, that is the address of the memory location where the array is starting. The scanf statement requires the address of the location to store the value input by the user. Since str already stores the address of the memory location we do not need to add the & before it.

No! we can not run any simple program with out using any interface such as operatin systen or System software. but in some cases like Machine level languge or firmware run without any software because it directlly communicate with hardware and makes the hardware active so other program can run using his platform.

Buffer is something that is used to hold the data temporarly.

Ex- If we are watching any thing online,then buffering of data takes place i.e for sometime data get stored in buffer then processed.

These definitions are for winrunner Run modes

  • Verify: When ever we want to check the behavior of an application and to save the result we use verify run mode.
  • update: When ever we want to create a new expected results for GUi checkpoints and Bitmap checkpoint we use update run mode.
  • Debug: When ever we want to run a script after update without any errors in syntax we use Debug run mode.

Linux supports virtual memory, that is, using a disk as an extension of RAM so that the effective size of usable memory grows correspondingly. The kernel will write the contents of a currently unused block of memory to the hard disk so that the memory can be used for another purpose. When the original contents are needed again, they are read back into memory. This is all made completely trparent to the user; programs running under Linux only see the larger amount of memory available and don't notice that parts of them reside on the disk from time to time. Of course, reading and writing the hard disk is slower (on the order of a thousand times slower) than using real memory, so the programs don't run as fast. The part of the hard disk that is used as virtual memory is called the swap space.

@that memory is retained in the memory unit for some time even after power failure to the memory unit.
@that memory is lost by power failure but regained as soon as power is restored.
@that memory is retained in the memory unit at higher temperature.
@that memory is retained in the memory unit for years after power failure to the memory unit.

Yes. Mercury Managed Services can provide you the benefits of fast time to value, on-going mentoring and lower total cost of ownership for Mercury QuickTest Professional as long as you are also utilizing Mercury Managed Services for Quality Center.

class singleten{ static int count; singleten() { if (count==1) { exit(0); } count++; }}singleten::count =0;void main(){singleten s1;singleten s2;}program is terminated as soon as second object is created.

Cannot execute 13,000 FTS faster. First need to analyse the severity and priority of the functionality wise and then the selected test alone have to execute

Indexing. Searching. Web search engines work by storing information about many web pages, which they retrieve from the HTML markup of the pages. These pages are retrieved by a Web crawler (sometimes also known as a spider) - an automated Web crawler which follows every link on the site.

Thinks of a situation where you need to do some work just once in a function irrespective of how many times that function is invoked then u can have a static variable which will keep a track of it. eg int main () { static int once = 0; if (!once) { once++; /*code need to be executed once*/ } /*reset of the code*/ }

Two or more process run concurrently called MultiTasking. There are two types of multitasking.

  1. Process-based.
  2. Thread-based.

Process-based multitasking allows your computer to run two or more programs concurrently.

Thread-based multitasing me single program can perform two or more task simultaneously.

  1. Threads share the address space of the process that created it; processes have their own address.
  2. Threads have direct access to the data segment of its process; processes have their own copy of the data segment of the parent process.
  3. Threads can directly communicate with other threads of its process; processes must use interprocess communication to communicate with sibling processes.
  4. Threads have almost no overhead; processes have considerable overhead.
  5. New threads are easily created; new processes require duplication of the parent process.
  6. Threads can exercise considerable control over threads of the same process; processes can only exercise control over child processes.
  7. Changes to the main thread (cancellation, priority change, etc.) may affect the behavior of the other threads of the process; changes to the parent process does not affect child processes.

A race around condition is a fault in the process or a system where the output or the result of the process is critically and unexpectedly dependent on the timing of other events. Race condition especially occurs in multithreaded or in distributed systems.

Review if more formal than walkthrough .Walkthrough is done with a purpose of gain understanding of system and learning.

If you are looking at connecting to a *nix machine from windows then you can very well use a windows batch file. The latest windows scripting package provides pretty powerful tools similar to *nix scripting.Or you can try installing Cygwin which will provide the windows port of *nix tools that are usually used in *nix scripts.But if you are running it from windows then the best one would be to write a windows batch file.

This can be done by measureing the time taken by the first byte to reach the client (TTFB) and the time taken by the last byte of the response to reach the client (TTLB) by using various network bandwidths between the client and the server.

Swapping is to chance the value to each other in c++#include#includevoid main(){Int a,b;cout<<"Enter the value of a ::::"<>a;cout<<"Enter the value of b ::::"<>b;a=a+b;b=a-b;a=a-b;cout<

8085 Assembly language is widely known as the lowest level language

You delete a linked list by iterating through the list and deleting the nodes one by one.

  • Begin at the head
  • Get address of first node
  • Get address of next node
  • Delete first node
  • Do not to access next of the current node after deleting the current node.
  • Move next node to first node
  • Repeat

If the list is empty, the head pointer will be NULL.

To remove a section, do the following:
Steps :

  1. Delete the section header.
  2. From the View menu, click Page Structure.
  3. Expand Page Body until you see the data container in which you added the section. The data container is nested in the List object that is created when you add a section.
  4. Drag the data container to Page Body. The data container appears as a node of Page Body.
  5. Delete the List object. In the Query Explorer, the query that is created when you add a section is also deleted.
  6. From the View menu, click Page Design.
  7. In the Insertable Objects pane, click the Query Items tab.
  8. Drag the query item that was used as a section header back into the data container.

A mutated program is called Mutant and Mutation testing is based up on seeding the Implementation with a Fault by applying mutation Operator and determining whether Testing Identify this fault is called Mutation testing

  1. Take 2 empty stacks.
  2. Fill the 1st stack with some items (eg: input 100, 101, 102, 103).
  3. Now read the items from 1st stack in LIFO order and write to 2nd stack. (By this the 2nd stack will get the items in the order .. 103, 102, 101, 100)
  4. Now read the items from 2nd stack in LIFO order i.e. the output will be 100, 101, 102, @ (this is the queue order FIFO with respect to the actual items entered in 1st stack.)