Integrators are widely used in ramp or sweep generators, filters, analog computers etc.

**Assumptions made for analyzing ideal op-amp are:**

- Infinite open-loop gain
- Infinite input impedance
- Zero output impedance
- Perfect balance
- Infinite frequency bandwidth
- Infinite slew rate
- Infinite common-mode rejection ratio
- Nil drift of characteristics with temperature

Amplifier is a device that makes sound louder and signal level greater.

Adder, subtractor, differentiator, integrator fall under the category of linear circuits.

The formula for non inverting amplifier is given as 1+Rf/R1.

**Characteristic of ideal OP AMP are**

- Infinite voltage gain
- Zero output impedance
- Infinite input impedance
- Infinite slew rate
- Characteristics not drifting with temperature
- Infinite bandwidth

In an inverting amplifier, the input is connected to the minus or inverting terminal of op-amp.

The dynamic resistance of the emitter-base junction diode is called the ac emitter resistance.

**The parameters to be considered for dc applications are:**

- Input offset voltage
- Input offset current
- Input bias current
- Drift

**The parameters to be considered for ac applications are:**

- Gain bandwidth product (GBW)
- Rise time
- Slew rate
- Full-power response
- AC noise

CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential voltage gain (Ad) to common mode voltage gain (Acm).

**The formula for CMRR is given below:**

CMRR = Ad/Acm

If Acm will be zero then only it will be infinite.

An integrator is a circuit that performs a mathematical operation called integration.