Class B. Very congested airspace.
Minimum En Route Altitude, lowest altitude on that airway that assures obstacle clearance and acceptable navigational reception.
Take off decision speed
at this point, if you gain view of positive visual runway environment, it guarantees a 3 degree decent slope (normal) down to the runway.
minimum speed control in the ground
TSFC thrust specific fuel consumption which directly inperpolates to power setting and altitude. Higher you climb the less fuel required. Throttle settings also have a say in conservation and relates more to maintenance issues which is why full throttle takeoffs are rarely done.
Requirements for filing an alternate. 1-2-3: 1hr before to 1hr after estimated time of arrival, the weather must be forecast to be 2000' ceiling and 3SM vis.
The systematic and effective use of all available resources to ensure a desirable outcome and completion of the flight. Focusing on communication, teamwork, task allocation, decision-making and situational awareness.
The major contributors in the CRM process are: Dispatchers, flight attendants, maintenance, ATC and of course the cockpit crew.
It is a continuous narrow line active of thunderstorms ahead of cold front but can develop far removed of any front. May be too long to detour, too thick to penetrate. It forms very rapidly reach Max intensity in late afternoon or early evening. IT IS THE SINGLE MOST INTENSE WEATHER HAZARD FOR AIRCRAFT.
Pilots navigate the flight, observe and direct the activities of the crew, check instruments, keep an eye on the weather, and monitor altitude and air traffic. Doing all these and more, often simultaneously, requires outstanding multi-tasking skills and power of concentration.
big airline paneer
hyperventilation is when the body has too much Oxygen and not enough Co2
its a change on direction and speed of the wind
one that is knowledgeable, decisive, conservative and safety conscious, good people skills, superior communication skills, solid piloting skills, can manage stress and avoid confrontation
Depends on your speed
As the aircraft reaches critical mach the nose of the aircraft tends to pitch downwards due to the flow of air over the wing reaching supersonic speeds producing additional life and center of pressure moving rearward. As the center of pressure moves rearward the elevators become less effective, pushing the aircraft into a potentially unrecoverable dive.
We have a tricycle gear set up, each main gear has four-wheel truck and the nose gear has two wheels. They are ABS/Anti-skid equipped, and the emergency braking system has hydraulic accumulators that provide up to 7 full applications of brake pressure. You have to be careful when applying the brakes to avoid getting into an oscillation between the braking action and your brake pedal pressure
a precision approach that is offset from the runway, it may have GS
After sunset the ground radiates the heat it accumulated during the day into the atmosphere. As the ground cools overnight, the air immediately above it cools as well. If it has enough moisture and cools to its dewpoint, fog will form.
Cessna 172 is 41Kts
A cold front occurs when a mass of cold dense and stable air advances and replaces a body of warmer air. It is associated with heavy weather such as thunderstorm, heavy rain/hail/lightning and may produce tornadoes. It is also producing squall line. High due point and falling baro pressure are indicative of cold front.
A private pilot may limit himself to knowledge of English good enough to understand control towers. Other pilots, being more publicly involved figures by necessity, greatly benefit from knowing more than one language.
blue is IFR (has approaches) green is VFR (no approaches)
It's an altitude derived by Jepp or provided by state authorities. If derived by Jepp, Grid MORA clear all terrain and structures by 1000' in areas where highest elevations are 5000' MSL or lower. MORA values clear all terrain and structures by 2000' in areas where highest elevations are 5001' MSL or higher. Grid MORA (State) altitude supplied by the State Authority provides 2000' clearance in mountainous areas and 1000' in non-mountainous areas. Also... a +/- denote doubtful accuracy but are believed to provide sufficient reference point clearance.
Describe first what your emotional response would be. It is important to demonstrate, preferably through examples, that you can maintain your poise during such events, and that you possess enough presence of mind to activate emergency procedures and delegate duties among crew members as necessary.
Hydroplaning that requires a very smooth surface (ie new pavement, rubber coated pavement). Thin layer of water, low tire speed. Anything more than gentle braking can cause tires to lock.
on a balance runway it is the last chance for you to decide not to go if you have and emergency and still stop on the runway according to the air data
On a VOR approach, the FAP is whenever you are established on course inbound and the final decent may be started. For non-precision approaches, the FAF is the "Maltese Cross" and for precision, the arrow which identifies the GS intercept.
The winglet will allow a new airplane that already flies farther, higher and more economically than competing products to extend its range, carry more payload, save on fuel and benefit the environment. Unlike traditional winglets typically fitted at abrupt angles to the wing, this new advanced "blended" design gently curves out and up from the wing tip, reducing aerodynamic drag and boosting performance. A Next-Generation 737-800 equipped with the new winglet will be able to fly farther, burn 3 percent to 5 percent less fuel, or carry up to 6,000 pounds more payload. Quick wer is...it reduces drag cause by aerodynamic forces acting on the wingtip. Because of that it gets less fuel burn or greater cargo loads, or both.
Besides relevant college degree(s), pilots graduate from flying school and participate in annual additional training.
(visual descent point) is the last point in which you would be at a normal position to land on a non-precision approach.
Lack of oxygen to body tissues
Airspeed maximum of 200 knots indicated within 4 nautical or 5 statute miles and 2500 feet above the ground of the primary airport.
rearward Cg gives better fuel efficiency
takeoff safety speed
CRM is a system which allows optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures, interpersonal communication, team work - all to promote safety and enhance efficiency in operations
Airport Reference Point ARP.
Single engine climb speed until safe altitude or clear of obstacles
point where initial approach segment begins
Reduced vertical seperation minimums.
100 ft above touchdown zone unless Runway identifying lights / markings are visible.
200 KIAS within 4 NM of Primary Class C Airport
Minimum Obstacle Clearance that provides obstable clearance between Vor airways. It also ensures VOR coverage 22nm from the nearest VOR
Non-precision: MAP is usually visually identified by a capitol and bold "M" in the Jepps or at the end of the solid line on NOS. There are several ways to id the MAP: Published DME at the MAP, Navaid such as the middle marker (MM), or timing from the FAF
When you can accept little or no delay, not an emergency situation, just an advisory to atc